Cameroon is characterised by the extraordinary diversity of its population, as there are just over 250 ethnic groups, thus raising the question of the representativeness of all strata. Since independence in 1960, government policy has been geared towards maintaining national unity, but since the 1996 law, the issue on minorities is awaken, but despite this quasi recognition, there has still been no specific law as in Congo or Gabon to ensure a legal framework for the protection of these minorities. Law No. 96/06 of 18 January 1996 revising the constitution of 2 June 1972 states that ‘The State shall ensure the protection of minorities and preserve the rights of indigenous populations in accordance with the law. Note should be taken that the notion on indigenous population has not been properly defined. Hence, the absence of a consensual definition could reflect the 1996 constituent’s flagrant lack of interest in the issue. Faced with this silence by the law, the government of Cameroon launched a study in 2009 that should eventually identify the groups that can be considered as indigenous populations within the meaning of the United Nations system.